Kiali Logo

Validations

Table of Contents

AuthorizationPolicy

KIA0101 - Namespace not found for this rule

AuthorizationPolicy enables access control on workloads. Each policy effects only to a group of request. For instance, all requests started from a workload on a list of namespaces. The present validation points out those rules referencing a namespace that don’t exist in the cluster.

Resolution

Either remove the namespace from the list, correct if there is any typo or create a new namespace.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: security.istio.io/v1beta1
kind: AuthorizationPolicy
metadata:
 name: httpbin
 namespace: default
spec:
 selector:
   matchLabels:
     app: httpbin
     version: v1
 rules:
 - from:
   - source:
       principals: ["cluster.local/ns/default/sa/sleep"]
   - source:
       namespaces:
         - default
         - non-existing # warning
         - unexisting # warning
   to:
   - operation:
       methods: ["GET"]
       paths: ["/info*"]
   - operation:
       methods: ["POST"]
       paths: ["/data"]
   when:
   - key: request.auth.claims[iss]
     values: ["https://accounts.google.com"]

KIA0102 - Only HTTP methods and fully-qualified gRPC names are allowed

An AuthorizationPolicy has an Operation field where is defined the oprations allowed for a request. In the method field are listed all the allowed methods that request can have. This validation appears when a problem is found in there. The only methods accepted are: either HTTP valid methods or fully-qualified names of gRPC service in the form of "/package.service/method"

Resolution

Either change or remove the violating method. It has to be either a HTTP valid method or a fully-qualified names of a gRPC service in the form of "/package.service/method"

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: security.istio.io/v1beta1
kind: AuthorizationPolicy
metadata:
 name: httpbin
 namespace: default
spec:
 selector:
   matchLabels:
     app: httpbin
     version: v1
 rules:
 - from:
   - source:
       principals: ["cluster.local/ns/default/sa/sleep"]
   - source:
       namespaces:
         - default
   to:
   - operation:
       methods:
         - "GET"
         - "/package.service/method"
         - "WRONG" # Warning
         - "non-fully-qualified-grpc" # Warning
       paths: ["/info*"]
   - operation:
       methods: ["POST"]
       paths: ["/data"]
   when:
   - key: request.auth.claims[iss]
     values: ["https://accounts.google.com"]

KIA0104 - This host has no matching entry in the service registry

AuthorizationPolicy enables access control on workloads. Each policy effects only to a group of request going to a specific destination. For instance, allow all the request going to details host.

The present validation points out those rules referencing a host that don’t exist in the authorization policy namespace. Kiali considers services and service entries. Those hosts that refers to hosts outside of the object namespace will be presented with an unknow error.

Resolution

Either remove the host from the list, correct if there is any typo or deploy a new service or service entry.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: security.istio.io/v1beta1
kind: AuthorizationPolicy
metadata:
 name: httpbin
 namespace: default
spec:
 selector:
   matchLabels:
     app: httpbin
     version: v1
 rules:
 - from:
   - source:
       principals: ["cluster.local/ns/default/sa/sleep"]
   - source:
       namespaces:
         - default
   to:
   - operation:
       hosts:
         - wrong # Error
         - ratings
         - details.default
         - reviews.default.svc.cluster.local
         - productpage.outside # Unknown
         - google.com # Service Entry present. No error
         - google.org # Service Entry not present, wrong domain. Error.
       methods:
         - "GET"
         - "/package.service/method"
       paths: ["/info*"]
   - operation:
       methods: ["POST"]
       paths: ["/data"]
   when:
   - key: request.auth.claims[iss]
     values: ["https://accounts.google.com"]

Destination rules

KIA0201 - More than one DestinationRules for the same host subset combination

Istio applies traffic rules for services after the routing has happened. These can include different settings such as connection pooling, circuit breakers, load balancing, and detection. Istio can define the same rules for all services under a host or different rules for different versions of the service.

This validation warning could be a result of duplicate definition of the same subsets as well as from rules that apply to all subsets. Also, a combination of one Destination Rule (DR) applying to all subsets and another defining behavior for only some subsets triggers this validation warning.

Istio silently ignores the duplicate subsets and merge these destination rules without letting the user know. Only the first seen rule (by Istio) per subset is used and information from multiple definitions is not merged. While the routing might work correctly, this is most likely a configuration error. It may lead to a undesired behavior if one of the offending rules is removed or modified and that is probably not the intention of the deployer of this service. Also, if the two offending destination rules have different policies for traffic routing the wrong one might be used.

Resolution

Either merge the settings to a single DR or split the subsets in such a way that they do not interleave. This ensures that the routing behavior stays consistent.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: DestinationRule
metadata:
  name: reviews-dr1
spec:
  host: reviews
  trafficPolicy:
    loadBalancer:
      simple: RANDOM
  subsets:
  - name: v1
    labels:
      version: v1
  - name: v2
    labels:
      version: v2
  - name: v3
    labels:
      version: v3
---
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: DestinationRule
metadata:
  name: reviews-dr2
spec:
  host: reviews
  trafficPolicy:
    loadBalancer:
      simple: RANDOM
  subsets:
  - name: v1
    labels:
      version: v1

KIA0202 - This host has no matching entry in the service registry (service, workload or service entries)

Istio applies traffic rules for services after the routing has happened. These can include different settings such as connection pooling, circuit breakers, load balancing, and detection. Istio can define the same rules for all services under a host or different rules for different versions of the service. The host must a service that is defined in the platform’s service registry or as a ServiceEntry. Short names are extended to include '.namespace.cluster' using the namespace of the destination rule, not the service itself. FQDN is evaluated as is. It is recommended to use the FQDN to prevent any confusion.

If the host is not found, Istio ignores the defined rules.

Resolution

Correct the host to point to a correct service, in this namespace or with FQDN to other namespaces, or deploy the missing service to the mesh.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: DestinationRule
metadata:
  name: reviews
spec:
  host: notpresent
  trafficPolicy:
    loadBalancer:
      simple: RANDOM
  subsets:
  - name: v1
    labels:
      version: v1
  - name: v2
    labels:
      version: v2
  - name: v3
    labels:
      version: v3

KIA0203 - This subset’s labels are not found in any matching host

Istio applies traffic rules for services after the routing has happened. These can include different settings such as connection pooling, circuit breakers, load balancing, and detection. Istio can define the same rules for all services under a host or different rules for different versions of the service. The host must a service that is defined in the platform’s service registry or as a ServiceEntry. Short names are extended to include '.namespace.cluster' using the namespace of the destination rule, not the service itself. FQDN is evaluated as is. It is recommended to use the FQDN to prevent any confusion.

Subsets can override the global settings defined in the DR for a host.

If the host is not found, Istio ignores the defined rules.

Resolution

Correct the host to point to a correct service, in this namespace or with FQDN to other namespaces, or deploy the missing service to the mesh. If the hostname is equal to the one used otherwise in the DR, consider removing the duplicate host resolution.

Also, verify that the labels are correctly matching a workload with the intended service.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: DestinationRule
metadata:
  name: reviews
spec:
  host: reviews
  trafficPolicy:
    loadBalancer:
      simple: RANDOM
  subsets:
  - name: v1
    labels:
      version: v10
  - name: v2
    labels:
      notfoundlabel: v2
  - name: v3
    labels:
      version: v3

KIA0204 - mTLS settings of a non-local Destination Rule are overridden

Istio allows you to define DestinationRule at three different levels: mesh, namespace and service level. A mesh may have multiple DRs. In case of having two DestinationRules on the first one is at a lower level than the second one, the first one overrides the TLS values of the second one.

This validation appears only when autoMtls is disabled.

Resolution

This validation aims to warn Kiali users that they may be disabling/enabling mTLS from the higher DestinationRule. Merging the TLS settings to one of the DestinationRules is the only way to fix this validation. However, this is a valid scenario so it might be impossible to remove this warning.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "istio-system"
spec:
  host: "*.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: ISTIO_MUTUAL
---
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: DestinationRule
metadata:
  name: reviews
spec:
  host: reviews
  trafficPolicy:
    loadBalancer:
      simple: RANDOM
  subsets:
  - name: v1
    labels:
      version: v1
  - name: v2
    labels:
      version: v2
  - name: v3
    labels:
      version: v3

KIA0205 - PeerAuthentication enabling mTLS at mesh level is missing

Istio has the ability to define mTLS communications at mesh level. In order to do that, Istio needs one DestinationRule and one PeerAuthentication. The DestinationRule configures all the clients of the mesh to use mTLS protocol on their connections. The PeerAuthentication defines what authentication methods that can be accepted on the workload of the whole mesh. If the PeerAuthentication is not found or doesn’t exist and the mesh-wide DestinationRule is on ISTIO_MUTUAL mode, all the communication returns 500 errors.

This validation appears only when autoMtls is disabled.

Resolution

Add a PeerAuthentication within the istio-system namespace without specifying targets but setting peers mtls mode to STRICT or PERMISSIVE. The PeerAuthentication should be like this.

Severity

Error

Example

# AutoMtls disabled, no PeerAuthentication at mesh-level defined
apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "istio-system"
spec:
  host: "*.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: ISTIO_MUTUAL

KIA0206 - PeerAuthentication enabling namespace-wide mTLS is missing

Istio has the ability to define mTLS communications at namespace level. In order to do that, Istio needs both a DestinationRule and a PeerAuthentication targeting all the clients/workloads of the specific namespace. The PeerAuthentication allows mTLS authentication method for all the workloads within a namespace. The DestinationRule defines all the clients within the namespace to start communications in mTLS mode. If the PeerAuthentication is not found and the DestinationRule is on STRICT mode in that namespace but there is the DestinationRule enabling mTLS, all the communications within that namespace returns 500 errors.

This validation appears only when autoMtls is disabled.

Resolution

A PeerAuthentication enabling mTLS method is needed for the workloads in the namespace. Otherwise all the clients start mTLS connections that those workloads won’t be ready to manage. Add a PeerAuthentication without specifying targets but setting mTLS mode to STRICT or PERMISSIVE in the same namespace as the DestinationRule.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "enable-mtls"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  host: "*.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: ISTIO_MUTUAL

KIA0207 - PeerAuthentication with TLS strict mode found, it should be permissive

Istio needs both a DestinationRule and PeerAuthentication to enable mTLS communications. The PeerAuthentication configures the authentication method accepted for all the targeted workloads. The DestinationRule defines which is the authentication method that the clients of specific workloads has to start communications with.

Resolution

Kiali has found that there is a DestinationRule sending traffic without mTLS authentication method. There are two different ways to fix this situation. You can either change the PeerAuthentication applying to PERMISSIVE mode or change the DestinationRule to start communications using mTLS.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "disable-mtls"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  host: "*.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: DISABLE
---
apiVersion: "authentication.istio.io/v1alpha1"
kind: "Policy"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  peers:
  - mtls:
      mode: STRICT

KIA0208 - PeerAuthentication enabling mTLS found, permissive mode needed

Istio needs both a DestinationRule and PeerAuthentication to enable mTLS communications. The PeerAuthentication configures the authentication method accepted for all the targeted workloads. The DestinationRule defines which is the authentication method that the clients of specific workloads has to start communications with.

Kiali found a DestinationRule starting communications without TLS but there was a PeerAuthentication allowing all services in the mesh to accept only requests in mTLS.

Resolution

There are two ways to fix this situation. You can either change the PeerAuthentication to enable PERMISSIVE mode to all the workloads in the mesh or change the DestinatonRule to enable mTLS instead of disabling it (change the mode to ISTIO_MUTUAL).

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  host: "*.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: DISABLE
---
apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "istio-system"
spec:
  mtls:
    mode: STRICT

KIA0209 - ServiceMeshPolicy enabling mTLS is missing

Maistra has the ability to define mTLS communications at mesh level. In order to do that, Istio needs one DestinationRule and one ServiceMeshPolicy. The DestinationRule configures all the clients of the mesh to use mTLS protocol on their connections. The ServiceMeshPolicy defines what authentication methods can be accepted on the workload of the whole mesh. If the ServiceMeshPolicy is not found at control plane namespace or doesn’t exist and the mesh-wide DestinationRule is on ISTIO_MUTUAL mode, all the communication returns 500 errors.

Resolution

Add a ServiceMeshPolicy named as default without specifying targets but setting peers mtls mode to STRICT or PERMISSIVE. The ServiceMeshPolicy should be like this.

Severity

Error

Example

# AutoMtls disabled, no PeerAuthentication at mesh-level defined
apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "istio-system"
spec:
  host: "*.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: ISTIO_MUTUAL

KIA0210 - ServiceMeshPolicy enabling mTLS found, permissive policy is needed

Maistra needs both a DestinationRule and Policy to enable mTLS communications. The policy configures the authentication method accepted for all the targeted workloads. The DestinationRule defines which is the authentication method that the clients of specific workloads has to start communications with.

Kiali found a DestinationRule starting communications without TLS but there was a ServiceMeshPolicy allowing services to accept only requests in mTLS.

Resolution

There are two ways to fix this situation. You can either change the ServiceMeshPolicy to enable PERMISSIVE mode to all the workloads in the mesh or change the DestinatonRule to enable mTLS instead of disabling it (change the mode to ISTIO_MUTUAL).

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  host: "*.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: DISABLE
---
apiVersion: "maistra.io/v1"
kind: "ServiceMeshPolicy"
metadata:
  name: default
  namespace: control-plane-ns
spec:
  peers:
  - mtls:
      mode: STRICT

Gateways

KIA0301 - More than one Gateway for the same host port combination

Gateway creates a proxy that forwards the inbound traffic for the exposed ports. If two different gateways expose the same ports for the same host, this creates ambiguity inside Istio as either of these gateways could handle the traffic. This is most likely a configuration error. This check is done across all namespaces the user has access to.

Resolution

Remove the duplicate gateway entries or merge the two gateway definitions into a single one.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  name: bookinfo-gateway
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  selector:
    istio: ingressgateway # use istio default controller
  servers:
  - port:
      number: 80
      name: http
      protocol: HTTP
    hosts:
    - "*"
---
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  name: bookinfo-gateway-copy
  namespace: bookinfo2
spec:
  selector:
    istio: ingressgateway # use istio default controller
  servers:
  - port:
      number: 80
      name: http
      protocol: HTTP
    hosts:
    - "*"
---

KIA0302 - No matching workload found for gateway selector in this namespace

This validation checks the current namespace for matching workloads as this is recommended, and potentially in the future required, by the Istio. Excluded from this check are the default "istio-ingressgateway" and "istio-egressgateway" workloads which are included in Istio by default.

Although your traffic might be correctly routed to a workload in other namespace, this is not a guaranteed behavior and thus a warning is flagged in such cases also.

Resolution

Deploy the missing workload or fix the selector to target a correct location.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  name: bookinfo-gateway
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  selector:
    app: nonexisting # workload doesn't exist in the namespace
  servers:
  - port:
      number: 80
      name: http
      protocol: HTTP
    hosts:
    - "*"

Mesh Policies

KIA0401 - Mesh-wide Destination Rule enabling mTLS is missing

Istio has the ability to define mTLS communications at mesh level. In order to do that, Istio needs one DestinationRule and one PeerAuthentication. The DestinationRule configures all the clients of the mesh to use mTLS protocol on their connections. The PeerAuthentication defines what authentication methods can be accepted on the workload of the whole mesh. If the DestinationRule is not found or doesn’t exist and the PeerAuthentication is on STRICT mode, all the communication returns 500 errors.

This validation appears only when autoMtls is disabled.

Resolution

Add a DestinationRule with "*.cluster" host and ISTIO_MUTUAL as tls trafficPolicy mode. The DestinationRule should be like this.

Severity

Error

Example

# Make sure there isn't any DestinationRule enabling meshwide mTLS
apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "istio-system"
spec:
  mtls:
    mode: STRICT

PeerAuthentication

KIA0501 - Destination Rule enabling namespace-wide mTLS is missing

Istio has the ability to define mTLS communications at namespace level. In order to do that, Istio needs one DestinationRule and one PeerAuthentication. The DestinationRule configures all the clients of the namespace to use mTLS protocol on their connections. The PeerAuthentication defines what authentication methods can be accepted on a specific group of workloads. PeerAuthentications without target field specified will target all the workloads within its namespace. If the DestinationRule is not found or doesn’t exist in the namespace and the namespace-wide PeerAuthentication is on STRICT mode, all the communication will return 500 errors.

This validation appears only when autoMtls is disabled.

Resolution

Add a DestinationRule with "*.namespace.svc.cluster.local" host and ISTIO_MUTUAL as tls trafficPolicy mode. The DestinationRule should be like this.

Severity

Error

Example

# Make sure there isn't any DestinationRule enabling meshwide mTLS
apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  mtls:
    mode: STRICT

KIA0505 - Destination Rule disabling namespace-wide mTLS is missing

PeerAuthentication objects are used to define the authentication methods that a set of workloads can accept: Mutual, Istio Mutual, Simple or Disabled.

This validation warns the scenario where there is one PeerAuthentication at namespace level with DISABLE mode but there is DestinationRule at namespace or mesh level enabling mTLS. With this scenario, all the traffic flowing between the services in that namespace will fail.

Resolution

You can either change the namespace/mesh-wide Destination Rule to DISABLE mode or change the current PeerAuthentication to allow mTLS (mode STRICT or PERMISSIVE).

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  mtls:
    mode: DISABLE
---
apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "enable-mtls"
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  host: "*.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: ISTIO_MUTUAL

KIA0506 - Destination Rule disabling mesh-wide mTLS is missing

PeerAuthentication objects are used to define the authentication methods that a set of workloads can accept: Mutual, Istio Mutual, Simple or Disabled.

This validation warns the scenario where there is one PeerAuthentication at mesh level with DISABLE mode but there is DestinationRule at mesh level enabling mTLS. With this scenario, all the traffic flowing between the services in that namespace will fail.

Resolution

You can either change the mesh-wide Destination Rule to DISABLE mode or change the current PeerAuthentication to allow mTLS (mode STRICT or PERMISSIVE).

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "istio-system"
spec:
  mtls:
    mode: DISABLE
---
apiVersion: "networking.istio.io/v1alpha3"
kind: "DestinationRule"
metadata:
  name: "enable-mtls"
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  host: "*.local"
  trafficPolicy:
    tls:
      mode: ISTIO_MUTUAL

Ports

KIA0601 - Port name must follow <protocol>[-suffix] form

Istio requires the service ports to follow the naming form of 'protocol-suffix' where the '-suffix' part is optional. If the naming does not match this form (or is undefined), Istio treats all the traffic TCP instead of the defined protocol in the definition. Dash is a required character between protocol and suffix. For example, 'http2foo' is not valid, while 'http2-foo' is (for http2 protocol).

Resolution

Rename the service port name field to follow the form and the traffic flows correctly.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ratings-java-svc
  namespace: bookinfo
  labels:
    app: ratings
    service: ratings-svc
spec:
  ports:
  - port: 9080
    name: wrong-http
  selector:
    app: ratings-java
    version: v1

Services

KIA0701 - Deployment exposing same port as Service not found

Service definition has a combination of labels and port definitions that are not matching to any workloads. This means the deployment will be unsuccessful and no traffic can flow between these two resources. The port is read from the Service 'TargetPort' definition first and if undefined, the 'Port' field is used as Kubernetes defaults the 'TargetPort' to 'Port'. If the 'TargetPort' is using a integer, the port numbers are compared and if the 'TargetPort' is a string, the deployment’s portName is used for comparison.

Resolution

Fix the port definitions in the workload or in the service definition to ensure they match.

Severity

Warning

Example

Invalid example with port definitions unmatched:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ratings-java-svc
  namespace: ratings-java
  labels:
    app: ratings
    service: ratings-svc
spec:
  ports:
  - port: 9080
    name: http
  selector:
    app: ratings-java
    version: v1
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ratings-java
  namespace: ratings-java
  labels:
    app: ratings-java
    version: v1
spec:
  replicas: 1
  template:
    metadata:
      annotations:
         sidecar.istio.io/inject: "true"
      labels:
        app: ratings-java
        version: v1
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: ratings-java
        image: pilhuhn/ratings-java:f
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
        - containerPort: 8080

Valid example using targetPort definition matching:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
  name: ratings-java-svc
  namespace: ratings-java
  labels:
    app: ratings
    service: ratings-svc
spec:
  ports:
  - port: 9080
    targetPort: 8080
    name: http
  selector:
    app: ratings-java
    version: v1
---
apiVersion: extensions/v1beta1
kind: Deployment
metadata:
  name: ratings-java
  namespace: ratings-java
  labels:
    app: ratings-java
    version: v1
spec:
  replicas: 1
  template:
    metadata:
      annotations:
         sidecar.istio.io/inject: "true"
      labels:
        app: ratings-java
        version: v1
    spec:
      containers:
      - name: ratings-java
        image: pilhuhn/ratings-java:f
        imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent
        ports:
        - containerPort: 8080

ServiceMesh Policies

KIA0801 - Mesh-wide Destination Rule enabling mTLS is missing

Maistra has the ability to define mTLS communications at mesh level. In order to do that, Maistra needs one DestinationRule and one ServiceMeshPolicy. The DestinationRule configures all the clients of the mesh to use mTLS protocol on their connections. The ServiceMeshPolicy defines what authentication methods can be accepted on the workload of the whole mesh. If the DestinationRule is not found or doesn’t exist and the ServiceMeshPolicy is on STRICT mode, all the communication returns 500 errors.

Resolution

Add a DestinationRule named as default with "*.cluster" host and ISTIO_MUTUAL as tls trafficPolicy mode. The DestinationRule should be like this.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "maistra.io/v1"
kind: "ServiceMeshPolicy"
metadata:
  name: default
  namespace: control-plane-ns
spec:
  peers:
  - mtls: {}

ServiceRoles and ServiceRoleBindings

KIA0901 - Unable to find all the defined services

Services can be listed with an exact match, prefix match as well as suffix match. Using "*" refers to all the services in this namespace. This error indicates the services list is pointing to a service that can not be found from this namespace.

Resolution

Deploy the missing services or fix the services list to point to correct services.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "rbac.istio.io/v1alpha1"
kind: ServiceRole
metadata:
  name: details-reviews-viewer
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  rules:
  - services: ["wrongservice.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local", "reviews.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"]
    methods: ["GET"]
    constraints:
      - key: "destination.labels[version]"
        values: ["v1"]

KIA0902 - ServiceRole can only point to current namespace

Services can be listed with an exact match, prefix match as well as suffix match. Using "*" refers to all the services in this namespace. Although FQDN can be used, the namespace of the services must be the same as ServiceRole’s deployment.

Resolution

If the services in question are located in another namespace, deploy this ServiceRole to that namespace, or deploy the services to this namespace.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "rbac.istio.io/v1alpha1"
kind: ServiceRole
metadata:
  name: details-reviews-viewer
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  rules:
  - services: ["details.test.svc.cluster.local", "reviews.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"]
    methods: ["GET"]
    constraints:
      - key: "destination.labels[version]"
        values: ["v1"]

KIA0903 - ServiceRole does not exists in this namespace

ServiceRoleBinding assigns a ServiceRole to subjects. As such, it must refer to a ServiceRole object and this object can only reside in the same namespace. Cross-namespace refers are not valid.

Resolution

Deploy the missing ServiceRole to the same namespace.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "rbac.istio.io/v1alpha1"
kind: ServiceRole
metadata:
  name: details-reviews-viewer
  namespace: default
spec:
  rules:
  - services: ["details.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local", "reviews.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"]
    methods: ["GET"]
    constraints:
      - key: "destination.labels[version]"
        values: ["v1"]
---
apiVersion: "rbac.istio.io/v1alpha1"
kind: ServiceRoleBinding
metadata:
  name: bind-details-reviews
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  subjects:
  - user: "cluster.local/ns/bookinfo/sa/bookinfo-productpage"
  roleRef:
    kind: ServiceRole
    name: "details-reviews-viewer"

Sidecars

KIA1003 - Invalid host format. 'namespace/dnsName' format expected

The Sidecar resources are used for configuring the sidecar proxies in the service mesh. IstioEgressListener specifies the properties of an outbound traffic listener on the sidecar proxy attached to a workload instance.

The hosts list is the list of hosts that will be exposed to the workload. Each host in the list must have the namespace/dnsName format.

Resolution

Make sure the host has the namespace/dnsName format. See more info in the documentation link right below.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: Sidecar
metadata:
  name: notmatching
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  workloadSelector:
    labels:
      app: reviews
  egress:
  - port:
      number: 3306
      protocol: MYSQL
      name: egressmysql
    captureMode: NONE
    bind: 127.0.0.1
    hosts:
    - "*/mysql.foo.com"
    - "noslashsymbolpresent" # unsupported format

KIA1004 - This host has no matching entry in the service registry

The Sidecar resources are used for configuring the sidecar proxies in the service mesh. IstioEgressListener specifies the properties of an outbound traffic listener on the sidecar proxy attached to a workload instance.

In the hosts field, there is the list of hosts exposed to the workload. Each host in the list have the namespace/dnsName format where both namespace and dnsName may have non-obvious values. namespace may be either ., ~, * or an actual namespace name. dnsName has to be a FQDN representing a service, virtual service or a service entry. This FQDN may use the wildcard character.

See more information about the syntax of both namespace and dnsName into istio documentation.

Resolution

Make sure there is a service, virtual service or service entry matching with the host.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: Sidecar
metadata:
  name: servicenotfound
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  workloadSelector:
    labels:
      app: reviews
  egress:
  - port:
      number: 3306
      protocol: MYSQL
      name: egressmysql
    captureMode: NONE
    bind: 127.0.0.1
    hosts:
    - "bookinfo/*.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local" # Bookinfo running into bookinfo ns
    - "default/kiali.io" # Service entry present in the namespace
    - "bookinfo/bogus.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local" # Bogus service into bookinfo doesn't exist
    - "bogus-ns/reviews.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local" # Cross-namespace validation: unable to verify validity

KIA1006 - Global default sidecar should not have workloadSelector

The Sidecar resources are used for configuring the sidecar proxies in the service mesh. By default, all the sidecars are configured with the default sidecar instance specified in the control plane namespace (usually istio-system). In case there are sidecar resources in the namespaces where your applications are, this default sidecar resource won’t be considered. The sidecar in your namespace will be applied.

Having workloadSelector in your global default sidecar won’t make any effect in the other sidecars living outside of the control plane namespace.

Resolution

Make sure you don’t have the workloadSelector in this global sidecar resource. In case you need specific settings for specific workloads, move those settings to the sidecar resources in your application namespaces.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: Sidecar
metadata:
  name: default
  namespace: istio-system
spec:
  workloadSelector: # Default sidecar can't have labels
    labels:
      version: v1
  egress:
  - port:
      number: 3306
      protocol: MYSQL
      name: egressmysql
    captureMode: NONE
    bind: 127.0.0.1
    hosts:
    - "bookinfo/reviews.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"
    - "bookinfo/details.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local"

VirtualServices

KIA1101 - DestinationWeight on route doesn’t have a valid service (host not found)

VirtualService routes matching requests to a service inside your mesh. Routing can also match a subset of traffic to a certain version of it for example. Any service inside the mesh must be targeted by its name, the IP address are only allowed for hosts defined through a Gateway. Host must be in a short name or FQDN format. Short name will evaluate to VS' namespace, regardless of where the actual service might be placed.

If the host is not found, Istio ignores the defined rules. However, if a subset with a Destination Rule is not found it affects all the subsets and all the routings. As such, care must be taken that the Destination rule is available before deploying the Virtual Service.

Resolution

Correct the host to point to a correct service (in this namespace or with FQDN to other namespaces), deploy the missing service to the mesh or remove the configuration linking to that non-existing service.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: details
spec:
  hosts:
  - details
  http:
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: nonexistentsvc
        subset: v2

KIA1102 - VirtualService is pointing to a non-existent gateway

By default, VirtualService routes apply to sidecars inside the mesh. The gateway field allows to override that default and if anything is defined, the VS applies to those selected. 'mesh' is a reserved gateway name and means all the sidecars in the mesh. If one wishes to apply the VS to gateways as well as the sidecars, the 'mesh' keyword must be used as one of the gateways. Incorrect gateways mean that the VS is not applied correctly.

Resolution

Fix the possible gateway field to target all necessary gateways or remove the field if the default 'mesh' is enough.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: details
spec:
  hosts:
  - details
  gateways:
  - non-existent-gateway
  http:
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: details
        subset: v1

KIA1103 - VirtualService doesn’t define any route protocol

VirtualService is a defined set of rules for routing certain type of traffic to target destinations with rules. At least one, 'tcp', 'http' or 'tls' must be defined.

Resolution

This appears to be a configuration error. Fix the definition.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: details
spec:
  hosts:
  - details

KIA1104 - The weight is assumed to be 100 because there is only one route destination

Istio assumes the weight to be 100 when there is only one HTTPRouteDestination or RouteDestination. The warning is present because there is one route with a weight less than 100.

Resolution

Either remove the weight field or you might want to add another RouteDestination with an specific weight.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: reviews
spec:
  hosts:
    - reviews
  http:
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v1
      weight: 10

KIA1105 - This subset is already referenced in another route destination

Istio allows you to apply rules over the traffic targetting to a specific service. In order to achieve that, it is necessary to add those rules into either http, tcp or tls fields in a VirtualService. In each field it is possible to specify rules for redirection or forwarding traffic. Those rules are the RouteDestination and HTTPRouteDestination structs. Each structs defines where the traffic is shifted to using the subset field.
This warning message refers to the fact of referencing one subset more than one time within the same route. Galley, Istio module in charge of configuration validation, allows the subset duplicity. However, the mesh it might become broken when there are different duplicates. Also, the presented warning might help spoting a typo.

Resolution

Make sure there is only one reference to the same subset for each RouteDestination. Either HTTPRouteDestination or RouteDestination.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: reviews
spec:
  hosts:
    - reviews
  http:
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v1
      weight: 80
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v2 # duplicate
      weight: 10
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v2 # duplicate
      weight: 10

KIA1106 - More than one Virtual Service for same host

A VirtualService defines a set of traffic routing rules to apply when a host is addressed. Each routing rule defines matching criteria for traffic of a specific protocol. If the traffic is matched, then it is sent to a named destination service (or subset/version of it) defined in the registry.

Resolution

This is valid configuration only if VirtualService is bound to a gateway, sidecars do not accept this behavior. There are several caveats when using this method and defining the same parts in multiple Virtual Service definitions is not recommended. While Istio will merge the configuration, it does not guarantee any ordering for cross-resource merging and only the first seen configuration is applied (rest ignored). As recommended, each VS definition should have a 'catch-all' situation, but this can only be defined in a definition affecting the same host.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: reviews
spec:
  hosts:
    - reviews
  http:
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v1
      weight: 90
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v2
      weight: 10
---
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: reviews-cp
spec:
  hosts:
    - reviews
  http:
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v1
      weight: 90
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v2
      weight: 10

KIA1107 - Subset not found

VirtualService routes matching requests to a service inside your mesh. Routing can also match a subset of traffic to a certain version of it for example. The subsets referred in a VirtualService have to be defined in one DestinationRule.

If one route in the VirtualService points to a subset that doesn’t exist Istio won’t be able to send traffic to a service.

Resolution

Fix the routes that points to a non existing subsets. It might be fixing a typo in the subset’s name or defining the missing subset in a DestinationRule.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: reviews
spec:
  hosts:
    - reviews
  http:
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: nosubset
      weight: 90
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v2
      weight: 10

KIA1108 - Preferred nomenclature: <gateway namespace>/<gateway name>

A virtual service may include a list of gateways which the defined routes should be applied to. Gateways in other namespaces may be referred to by <gateway namespace>/<gateway name>; specifying a gateway with no namespace qualifier is the same as specifying the VirtualService’s namespace.

Resolution

Move the nomenclature of the gateways into the supported Istio form: <gateway namespace>/<gateway name>

Example

kind: VirtualService
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
metadata:
  name: bookinfo
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  hosts:
    - '*'
  gateways:
    - bookinfo-gateway.bookinfo.svc.cluster.local # unsupported format
    - bookinfo/bookinfo-gateway # works
  http:
    - match:
        - uri:
            exact: /productpage
        - uri:
            prefix: /static
        - uri:
            exact: /login
        - uri:
            exact: /logout
        - uri:
            prefix: /api/v1/products
      route:
        - destination:
            host: productpage
            port:
              number: 9080
---
kind: Gateway
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
metadata:
  name: bookinfo-gateway
  namespace: bookinfo
spec:
  servers:
    - hosts:
        - '*'
      port:
        name: http
        number: 80
        protocol: HTTP
  selector:
    istio: ingressgateway

Generic

KIA0001 - Unable to verify the validity, cross-namespace validation is not supported for this field

In certain cases, Kiali is unable to validate the field since it spans another namespace to which the validator is not capable of looking at. In such cases, Kiali will mark this field with a grey icon indicating that the fields correctness could not be verified. This does not necessarily mean there is an error, but that the user should be careful and do the validation manually.

KIA0002 - More than one selector-less object in the same namespace

This validation refers to the usage of the selector. Selector-less Istio objects are those objects that don’t have the selector field specified. Therefore, objects that apply to all the workloads of a namespace (or whole mesh if the namespace is the same as the control plane namespace).

This validation warns you that you have two different objects living in the same namespace. This may leave an non-deterministic or unexpected behavior on the workloads of the namespace.

Resolution

The natural solution is to merge both objects. In case there are different behaviors you want to apply, consider to define the selector field targeting a specific set of workloads.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "default"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  mtls:
    mode: STRICT
---
apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "duplicate"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  mtls:
    mode: STRICT

KIA0003 - More than one object applied to the same workload

This validation refers to the usage of the selector. In this field are defined the labels of the workloads that this object will be applied to. It might be one or more workloads in the same namespace.

This validation warns the scenario where there are two different objects applying to the same workload(s). This may leave an undeterministic or unexpected behavior on the workloads of the namespace.

Resolution

There isn’t a standard solution for that. It is a good practice not to have multiple rules of the same kind applying to the same workloads. Otherwise you would end up having interferences between objects and having troubles when debugging. The first approach would be to merge both objects into one if possible. The second approach would be to reorganize the objects of the same kind in a way that each one only applies to a different set of workloads. Applying no change into the objects is also an option although not desiderable.

Severity

Error

Example

apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "productpage"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: productpage
  mtls:
    mode: STRICT
---
apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "productpage-disable-80"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: productpage
      version: v1
  mtls:
    mode: STRICT
  portLevelMtls:
    80:
      mode: DISABLE

KIA0004 - No matching workload found for the selector in this namespace

This validation warns the scenario where there are not workloads matching with the selector labels. In other terms, this object doesn’t have any implication into the mesh.

Resolution

There are three scenarios: either change the labels to match an existing workload (useful with typos), deploy a workload that match with those labels or safely remove this object.

Severity

Warning

Example

apiVersion: "security.istio.io/v1beta1"
kind: "PeerAuthentication"
metadata:
  name: "nomatchingworkloads"
  namespace: "bookinfo"
spec:
  selector:
    matchLabels:
      app: wrong-typo
      version: v1
  mtls:
    mode: STRICT
  portLevelMtls:
    80:
      mode: DISABLE